The Influence of Casino Architecture and Structure on Problem Gambling Behaviour: An Examination using Virtual Reality Technology pp65‑73
Abstract: The results of three studies are reported which were designed to provide converging evidence of the emotion and gambling behaviour that are induced by casino settings. Two overall macro casino designs were examined in this research: the playgro und design (high ceilings, spacious layout, the inclusion of elements of nature) and the gaming design (low ceilings, maze layout of machines, no extraneous décor). A conjoint study was conducted (n=275) that afforded the measurement of a number of décor variables in combination. Results confirmed that the propensity to gamble beyond planned levels and the level of restoration experienced are both higher for a playground casino than for a gaming casino; higher gambling was reported when travel dista nce to a casino was shorter; higher levels of restoration when a music soundtrack was played. Focus group research (n=24) provided rich descriptions of gambling settings, validating the provision of the desired overall macro designs and specific décor e lements in casinos. Finally a study (n= 445) was conducted using virtual reality technology, a 360º Panoscope, which immersed participants in a casino settings varying in their overall macro design (playground versus gaming), the type of emotion (aro usal versus pleasure) induced by a landing strip (entrance setting) and the inclusion of restorative images in the gambling setting. The findings were particularly dramatic for females exposed to a playground setting: gambling by females was more cons ervative in a playground setting, with positively‑valenced restorative images and with a pleasure‑inducing landing strip. For both males and females exposed to a gaming design, at‑risk gambling intentions were not influenced by landing strip and restorati ve image interventions. The different pattern of results yielded for at‑risk gambling intentions and restoration underscores the potential for research on casino environments to uncover less harmful design elements which have separate effects on these tw o variables.
Keywords: Keywords: casino environment, environmental emotion, restoration, at-risk gambling, environmental psychology, multi methods
Abstract: The journey of any doctorate is a challenging one. It constitutes a learning curve for postgraduate students towards becoming effective and fully independent academics. Through a concern for effective mentoring, the challenges of the doctoral ef fort have been well‑documented. The particular issues a Ph.D. student may face when choosing a mixed methods design merits some further attention, however. Mixed‑methods research is growing in popularity across academic domains and levels. Achieving a doc torate through a mixed methods study can be a very fruitful endeavour indeed. Excellent core handbooks, example studies and ongoing formalisation of the approach aid in delivering successful work. Yet the chosen methodological path may also bring up some specific hurdles. This paper aims to discuss some of those potential barriers as learning opportunities, and offer an initial discussion of the support systems. Specifically highlighted as potential challenges are the current trendy nature of mixed meth ods research, the search for optimal design, the development of skills, domain loyalties and paradigm problems, specific difficulties in publishing, isolation threat and justification needs. For Ph.D. students, an understanding of these challenges is a fi rst step towards overcoming them, and achieving conscious competence.
Abstract: This paper explores the scope for using reflective logs as a component in final year projects taken by students on an undergraduate management course. Students often wish to build practical experience into the final year of their degree, but th ey are also expected to carry out a certain amount of independent research as part of a final year. There can be a tension between students⠒ desire for experience and the requirement for research. The context of this is a management degree where a sig nificant piece of independent work is regarded as a crucial component of the course, but where an unintended consequence of framing this piece of work in a way that encourages autonomy among students, is that there is some ambiguity about quite what stude nts are expected to deliver. An observation made by some of the markers of these projects is that it is not uncommon for them to read like good consultancy reports, which do demonstrate the students⠒ writing skills and often prepare them for their futu re careers, but which do not necessarily score highly against the criteria associated with a major academic piece of work. Within the author⠒s institution some thought has been given to providing alternative forms of project, and a tangible move in this direction has been to introduce an option where some students combine their project with working alongside an organisation on a practical task. For these students an integral part of the process is the requirement that they maintain a reflective log on their work, following the principles of Schon (1983) in framing and reframing questions to elicit knowledge based on the students⠒ experience. One interpretation of this is that the reflective log can constitute part of the primary data that the stud ents draw on in their research. Such an approach has clear attractions for students and academic supervisors alike. There are well defined formats which a reflective log can follow and which can foster experiential learning (Moon, 2004). Because this type of project is based on practical activities