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Journal Article

Experiences from Sequential Use of Mixed Methods  pp87-95

Stefan Cronholm

© Sep 2011 Volume 9 Issue 2, ECRM 2011 Special issue, Editor: Ann Brown, pp87 - 197

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Abstract

The discussion of qualitative or quantitative approaches has been going on for many years. One way to reduce the most dogmatic standings is to use mixed methods consisting of combinations of qualitative and quantitative approaches. In this paper, we have analysed usage experiences from combining qualitative and quantitative approaches in different ways. We refer to these combinations as method configurations. Our findings point out that a researcher should commence with a qualitative approach when: 1) the researcher has a lower pre‑knowledge of phenomenon to be studied, 2) the phenomenon to be studied is abstract and 3) there is an uncertainty if the questions asked are the right questions. On the contrary, there is a tendency in our results that the researcher should start with a quantitative study when 1) the researcher has a good pre‑knowledge of the phenomenon or 2) the phenomenon is more concrete.

 

Keywords: mixed methods, method combinations, mixed approaches, qualitative methods, quantitative methods

 

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Journal Article

Mixed Methods: Combining Expert Interviews, Cross‑Impact Analysis and Scenario Development  pp9-21

Matthias Muskat, Deborah Blackman, Birgit Muskat.

© Jan 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 52

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Abstract

The article depicts a mixed methodology case which uses a qualitative‑quantitative‑qualitative approach. The research described used qualitative work with expert interviews for data collection, a quantitative analysis of the interviews and then a qualitative method of final scenario development for analysing and presenting the results. The case is offered to demonstrate that the introduction of the quantitative step of a cross‑impact‑analysis, which gives a mixed methodology, was beneficial for the overall research leading to surprising results that could not have been achieved with only a qualitative approach. Having a quantitative analysis step in‑between, which demonstrated the most frequent and consistent results out of a wide range of overall possibilities, helped reduce researcher bias, thereby increasing the credibility of the findings. The paper concludes that judiciously used mixed methodology in general, and this approach in particular, will give researchers using qualitative data collection a much stronger foundation in terms of the analysis and display of data.

 

Keywords: research methods, mixed methods, expert interviews, cross-impact analysis, scenario building

 

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Journal Article

A Proposal and Evaluation of a Design Method in Design Science Research  pp89-100

Francis Gacenga, Aileen Cater-Steel, Mark Toleman, Wui-Gee Tan

© Dec 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2, ECRM, Editor: Ann Brown, pp53 - 153

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Abstract

Information Systems (IS) design science literature offers a plethora of findings on various aspects, such as the general steps in design science, problem identification, objectives of solutions, and evaluation of the artefacts. However, there appears to b

 

Keywords: design science research, IT service management, performance measurement framework, mixed methods research, matching analysis projection synthesis approach

 

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Journal Article

Lessons from the field: Applying the Good Reporting of A Mixed Methods Study (GRAMMS) framework  pp55-66

Roslyn Cameron1

© Dec 2013 Volume 11 Issue 2, ECRM 2013, Editor: Ann Brown, pp53 - 117

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Abstract

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to apply a quality framework for mixed methods studies referred to as the Good Reporting of A Mixed Methods Study (GRAMMS) framework which was developed by OCathain, Murphy & Nicholl (2008). Mixed methods research i s an emerging methodological movement and one which is gaining in popularity across business and management fields. Those who have studied the use of mixed methods research in business have noted that a common criticism of mixed methods studies reported i n academic journals is the lack of a justification or rationale for the use of mixed methods and how the study has integrated the data or findings from the study. The aim of this paper is to apply and therefore demonstrate what needs to be documented when reporting a mixed methods study. To do this we have applied the GRAMMS to a piece of field research already reported to a community based audience. The study utilised an exploratory mixed methods research design over three sequential phases and involved a combination of both qualitative and quantitative data combinations throughout the three phases. The research and its findings are now being prepared for academic publication through the process of applying the GRAMMS framework. We have documented this p rocess as a means of assisting novice mixed methodologists who may be struggling with how they might report this new and emergent approach to research. The GRAMMS framework consists of six main points which address the rationale for utilising mixed method s as well as issues relating to the methodological choices attached to data collection methods, sequencing, sampling, priority of data, points of integration and data analysis techniques. The value of the paper lies firmly in the documenting of the GRAMMS application process and therefore how to best write up community based mixed methods field research for an academic outlet and audience.

 

Keywords: Keywords: mixed methods research, GRAMMS, extended mixed methods notation system, data transformation, skilled migrants

 

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Journal Article

Using the Multiple Case Study Design to Decipher Contextual Leadership Behaviors in Indian Organizations  pp54-65

Veena Vohra

© Jul 2014 Volume 12 Issue 1, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 74

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Abstract

Abstract: This paper demonstrates how the complex phenomenon of contextual leadership in business organizations was studied in a unique manner by using the multiple case study design. In the current context of fast paced change, uncertainty and ambiguity, leadership roles in organizations assume great significance. Recent studies have indicated the relevance and importance of studying leadership behavior in the context in which they appear and not away from it. In this study, the multiple case study desig n was used for the twin purposes of capturing rich descriptive contexts of the leader and strengthening the patterns of findings using Yins (1984) replication logic.Within the case studies, mixed methods were employed to generate qualitative and quant itative data simultaneously on the contextual leadership behaviors of senior Indian managerial leaders. The methodology,based on the social phenomenology paradigm, used interviews to capture the interpretation of the leaders about their environments. Qual itative data was collected through interviews, company documents, industry reports and analysts reports. Quantitative data collection methods included a scale based on Ansoffs model, the adaptive capacity scale as well as the Multifactor Leadership Quest ionnaire. The study proposes a model of leadership based on rich synthesis of patterns of leadership behavior across contexts in an emerging markets scenario using the multiple case study design, mixed methods in data collection and analysis, a combinat ion of data driven and theory driven codes in the coding framework and mixed methods for transforming the raw dataThe objective of this study was to provide insights into designing a multiple case study research and carrying out cross case analysis using matrices. Additionally the study describes the usage of the multiple case study design to study leadership embedded in its context in a novel manner.

 

Keywords: Keywords: multiple case study design, leadership, mixed methods, social phenomenology

 

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Journal Article

Design and Implementation of a Mixed Method Research Study in Project Management  pp3-15

Omar Bentahar, Dr Roslyn Cameron

© Dec 2015 Volume 13 Issue 1, Mixed Methods, Editor: Ros Cameron, pp1 - 61

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Abstract

Abstract: This article presents a mixed methodological approach in project management research and details the terms and the conditions of its design and implementation. Assuming, on the one hand, that qualitative methods allow the study of complex proces ses and phenomena in their idiosyncrasy, and, on the other hand that quantitative methods produce a nomothetic science based on statistical regularities (Miles, Huberman and Saldana 2013). We argue that mixed methods research allows, under certain condi tions and trade‑offs in the design and the implementation, the achievement of these two objectives. Mixed methods research remains underutilised in the management sciences despite the advantages in comparison to mono methods (Molina‑Azorin and Cameron, 2 010). This underutilization is linked to the tendency of certain discipline traditions and preferences for quantitative approaches as opposed to qualitative approaches. This opposition is also linked to the incompatibility thesis of the epistemological p aradigms combined with the exclusive links between paradigms and methods. The theoretical foundations of mixed methods is relatively young and there remains many questions relative to the process of design, implementation and integration of qualitative an d quantitative research to which researchers new to mixed methods may be confronted with. This article presents research which was carried out in two stages and focuses on the comprehension and the explanation of the diversity and the evolution of project manager⠒s roles. The paper discusses and demonstrates the objectives of a research strategy based on a mixed methodological approach combining qualitative and quantitative methods and specifies the type of mixed method research according to the impleme ntation order, the degree of combination of the two methods and the relative weight of the qualitative and quantitative methods. We propose a practical application of the theory of mixed methods that can assist and inspire project management researchers i n the design and the implementation of their own

 

Keywords: Keywords: mixed methods research, transformative design, sequential and concurrent implementation, project management

 

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Journal Article

Using Sequential Mixed Methods in Enterprise Policy Evaluation: A Pragmatic Design Choice?  pp16-26

Anthony Paul Buckley

© Dec 2015 Volume 13 Issue 1, Mixed Methods, Editor: Ros Cameron, pp1 - 61

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Abstract

Abstract: How might policy instruments contribute to indigenous firm growth and how can the effects of these instruments be evaluated at both firm and policy level? This paper illustrates how a mixed methods research design and data analysis strategy can pragmatically address the research questions outlined above. The advantages and challenges of employing quantitative research methods (what happened?) followed by confirmatory qualitative research methods (how and why did it happen?) in a multiphase s equential explanatory design is explored. The data analysis strategy is firstly to analyse the data generated from a before and after quasi‑experiment (with statistical controls), then data from the confirmatory qualitative techniques (in…depth desc riptive case studies) and cross‑case analysis are added. The proposed research design and analysis approach is applicable to complex research settings where a study is unable, for a variety of reasons, to meet the exacting requirements of a true experime ntal design e.g. random assignment, establishment of counterfactuals, valid control groups etc. This sequential multiphase approach can deliver findings on the relative contribution of the myriad factors influencing a result showing whether the policy intervention in this study made a contribution to an observed result and in what way? The findings from the Phase 1: Quasi…experiment, Phase 2: Case studies and Phase 3: Cross‑case analysis collectively demonstrates that the policy instrument evaluated i n this study made a marginal contribution at best to individual firm performance. Overall the state received a negative return on its investment (despite selecting the cohort of firms to invest in). The study concludes that, in the analysis period, the salient factors influencing value creation in the firms (and conversely the barriers to firm growth) were internal to the firm.

 

Keywords: Keywords: sequential mixed methods, evaluation, enterprise policy, firm growth

 

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Journal Article

Mixed Methods in Management Research: Implications for the Field  pp27-35

Pat Bazeley

© Dec 2015 Volume 13 Issue 1, Mixed Methods, Editor: Ros Cameron, pp1 - 61

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Abstract

Abstract: Mixed methods approaches to research have been widely adopted in social sciences and professional studies disciplines. Using a combination of methods is assumed to offer the promise of greater flexibility in undertaking research, of generating b etter supported arguments from research data, and of increased relevance to a wider circle of stakeholders, claims that are at least partially supported by evidence of higher journal citation rates for mixed than monomethod articles. A review of eighty‑th ree articles published eight years apart in the Academy of Management Journal (AMJ) and Administrative Science Quarterly (ASQ) suggests that organizational and management researchers have been slow to adopt mixed methods approaches to research. Articl es for both periods and in both journals were clearly dominated by studies that employed statistical analyses of archival, database, experimental or survey data, with little change over the period. These results reflect those found in other studies. This review of articles raised wider issues. 1) Difficulty was experienced in classifying studies, leading to a refinement in emphasis for a definition of mixed methods. 2) Management researchers as a whole, as reflected in the style and referencing of thes e articles, have thorough training in the fine details of statistical methods of analysis; understanding of qualitative analysis is weaker and restricted to a few; and none appears to have any awareness of a growing literature on mixed methods, nor did an y discuss the kinds of issues typically covered in qualitative and mixed methods articles in other journals. The results of this review have implications for the training of management and organization studies researchers who currently appear to have a qu ite limited repertoire of non‑statistical methods on which to draw when undertaking research.

 

Keywords: Keywords: methodology, methods, mixed methods, quantitative, qualitative, research training, management, organization studies

 

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