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Journal Article

Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit  pp53-60

Daire Hooper, Joseph Coughlan, Michael R. Mullen

© Sep 2008 Volume 6 Issue 1, ECRM 2008, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 94

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Abstract

The following paper presents current thinking and research on fit indices for structural equation modelling. The paper presents a selection of fit indices that are widely regarded as the most informative indices available to researchers. As well as outlining each of these indices, guidelines are presented on their use. The paper also provides reporting strategies of these indices and concludes with a discussion on the future of fit indices.

 

Keywords: Structural equation modelling, fit indices, covariance structure modelling, reporting structural equation modelling, model fit

 

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Journal Article

Mixed Methodology Approach to Place Attachment and Consumption Behaviour: a Rural Town Perspective  pp107-116

Maria Ryan

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, ECRM 2009, Editor: Ann Brown, Joseph Azzopardi, Frank Bezzina, pp1 - 116

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Abstract

This paper discusses the use of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in examining the influence people's attachment to their environment had on a number of consumption behaviours made by residents of a regional town in Western Australia. It discusses the concept of place attachment; its relationship with community attachment and the subsequent perceived value ascribed to living in the regional town of Narrogin, Western Australia. The use of a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods provided an opportunity to take a macro perspective in quantifying major place and community attachment influencers in the consumption decision‑making process, while understanding the meanings and sentiment behind these concepts from a micro perspective. In‑depth interviews were undertaken with thirty‑two residents of Narrogin. These interviews used a photo‑elicitation technique in which residents were given a camera and required to take photographs of important places, people and aspects of their lives. The photos were then used as prompts for personal interviews, as respondents discussed the meaning, sentiments and stories behind the chosen photographs. The interviews provided a richness and depth to our understanding of the value of respondents' attachment to Narrogin. The use of this technique as a forerunner to the quantitative phase is discussed and recommendations for future use are detailed. The second phase of data collection involved a telephone survey of residents from Narrogin and its surrounding area (Shire of Narrogin). This was designed to test a model and a number of hypotheses developed from the literature and the qualitative phase of the research. The model presented place and community attachment as separate, yet related constructs affecting the perceived value ascribed to living in Narrogin. Value was seen as a mediating construct between place and community attachment and consumption (shopping and staying in Narrogin) decisions. Shopping decisions included shopping for everyday grocery items, white goods, farm equipment and machinery and various services including educational, medical and aged care. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling were used to examine the prescribed model. The results identified different attachment weightings for the town and shire communities. In general, the model was a better predictor for the shire residents than it was for town residents. The results suggest different types of management strategies are required for businesses providing for the needs of town and for shire residents based on respective residents different attachment weightings. The paper discusses the use of the photo‑elicitation technique in the in‑depth interview stage of the research and its contribution to the development of the model as presented in the quantitative phase. Operationalising the constructs in this study has been, and still is, challenging for researchers. This paper provides valuable insights into the operationalisation process by utilising the combined methodologies approach. Uncovering stories, meanings and emotions can be integrated with an objective epistemology of attachment.

 

Keywords: mixed methodology, photo-elicitation technique, structural equation modelling, place attachment, community attachment, rural sustainability

 

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Journal Article

Group Model Building Using System Dynamics: An Analysis of Methodological Frameworks  pp35-45

Celine Berard

© Sep 2010 Volume 8 Issue 1, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 62

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Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to study existing methodological frameworks on group modelling projects using system dynamics. Such projects are more and more applied in organizations in order to support their strategic decisions. In this research, key frameworks were first identified and then classified allowing for an in‑depth analysis. The results of this analysis indicate that existing frameworks proposing a global vision of projects are scarce. Moreover, few of them consider both aspects of structure and process simultaneously. In addition, three crucial issues are highlighted: the elicitation of participants knowledge, the establishment of a consensus among participants, and the aspects of facilitation.

 

Keywords: : system dynamics, group model building, modelling process, methodological frameworks, systematic analysis

 

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Journal Article

Multicollinearity in Marketing Models: Notes on the Application of Ridge Trace Estimation in Structural Equation Modelling  pp3-15

Jenni Niemelä-Nyrhinen, Esko Leskinen

© Jul 2014 Volume 12 Issue 1, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 74

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Abstract

Abstract: Multicollinearity in Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is often overlooked by marketing scholars. This is unfortunate as multicollinearity may lead to fallacious path coefficient estimates or even bring about statistical non‑significance of the parameter estimates. Previous empirical illustrations on mitigating the effects of multicollinearity are virtually non‑existent in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to empirically illustrate the problem of multicollinearity in marketing mod els and the use of ridge trace estimation in mitigating the effects of multicollinearity in SEM, using the LISREL program. Two slightly differing ridge estimation procedures are illustrated using real data with a multicollinearity problem: Method A, in wh ich the ridge constant is added manually to all diagonal elements of the correlation matrix of the variables in the model, and Method B, in which the ridge constant is added manually only to the diagonal elements of the correlation matrix of the exogenous and explanatory endogenous variables in the model. In evaluating suitable values of the ridge constant, the ridge trace method is used. It is concluded that ridge trace estimation is an effective way of mitigating the effects of multicollinearity in SEM. With same ridge constant values, both methods produce same point estimates of path coefficients, but Method B produces smaller standard errors of parameter estimates and larger squared multiple correlations than Method A.

 

Keywords: marketing modelling, multicollinearity, structural equation modelling, ridge trace estimation, LISREL

 

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Journal Article

Validation of Simulation Based Models: A Theoretical Outlook  pp39-46

Morvin Savio Martis

© Nov 2006 Volume 4 Issue 1, Editor: Arthur Money, pp1 - 66

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Abstract

Validation is the most incomprehensible part of developing a model. Nevetheless, no model can be accepted unless it has passed the tests of validation, since the procedure of validation is vital to ascertain the credibility of the model. Validation procedures are usually framework based and dynamic, but a methodical procedure can be followed by a modeller (researcher) in order to authenticate the model. The paper starts with a discussion on the views and burning issues by various researchers on model validation and the foundational terminology involved. The paper later highlights on the methodology and the process of validation adopted. Reasons for the failure of the model have also been explored. The paper finally focuses on the widely approved validation schemes (both quantitative and qualitative) and techniques in practice, since no one test can determine the credibility and validity of a simulation model. Moreover, as the model passes more tests (both quantitative and qualitative) the confidence in the model increases correspondingly.

 

Keywords: Validation, simulation, dynamic models, validation schemes, validation process, modelling

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 8 Issue 1 / Sep 2010  pp1‑62

Editor: Ann Brown

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Editorial

This Journal publishes papers that offer new insights into or practical help with the application of research methods applied to business organizations. The five papers in this issue offer the management researcher help and support with an eclectic mixture of topics relating to the application of existing tools and methods.

They are of an impressive quality testifying to the continuing intense interest in the research process as it is applied to business organizations. The wide range of topics demonstrates the current extraordinary dynamism in this subject as researchers grapple with the epistemological problems inherent in the various methodologies that are currently being applied to business research.

The paper by Alexandrov give an in depth analysis of existing measures, drawing on empirical work to support their recommendations. Alexandrov gives researchers an excellent assessment of the Likert scale‑ its strengths and weaknesses and a guide to how and when to use it. Interestingly the paper by Lawrence also addresses SME operations, this time with respect to the reasons for using or not using the Internet. This paper offers a detailed description of an empirical study using a grounded theory methodology which sought to explain the reasons for adoption or non adoption. The value for management researchers lies in the careful description of the empirical work and the evaluation of its quality using criteria established for interpretivist research. The fourth paper to draw on empirical work is that by Johl and Renganathan. This paper offers the researcher valuable insights into the effects of taking different approaches to obtaining access to case sites.

The paper by Berard critiques existing literature on the building and application of Systems Dynamics models. Of the two main approaches for developing such models by individual experts or by groups composed of both experts in the technique and individuals knowledgeable about the situation being modeled, she focuses on the group approach. Her critique of the literature establishes an excellent template for good practice. Any group setting out to build an SD model would be well advised to read this paper closely.

The paper by Green et al is theoretical and addresses a subject of key importance to all management researchers. The authors develop a fascinating argument as to the inconsistencies of the scientific method especially when applied to organizational research. They dispute the prevailing view that theory and methodology can be independent under any circumstances and would argue that theories are the creation of us the current community of researchers  As they propose an organizational truth produced by organizational science provides far more insight into what is persuasive to organizational scholars and their audiences, than it does into the features of organizations that scientists anthropomorphically deemed salient  As researchers of business organizations, we are all affected by the dominant community views more than we may like to accept.

Ann Brown
September, 2010

 

Keywords: case study, decision-making scenarios, ethnography, fieldwork, gaining access, gatekeepers, group model building, interpretive research, IS evaluation, Likert scale, marketing priority, methodological frameworks, mixed method, modelling process, negatively-worded items, performance measures, positivism, reversed items, rhetoric, semiotics theory, single-item measures, system dynamics, systematic analysis

 

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