The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods provides perspectives on topics relevant to research in the field of business and management
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Journal Article

Mixed Methods: Combining Expert Interviews, Cross‑Impact Analysis and Scenario Development  pp9-21

Matthias Muskat, Deborah Blackman, Birgit Muskat.

© Jan 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 52

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Abstract

The article depicts a mixed methodology case which uses a qualitative‑quantitative‑qualitative approach. The research described used qualitative work with expert interviews for data collection, a quantitative analysis of the interviews and then a qualitative method of final scenario development for analysing and presenting the results. The case is offered to demonstrate that the introduction of the quantitative step of a cross‑impact‑analysis, which gives a mixed methodology, was beneficial for the overall research leading to surprising results that could not have been achieved with only a qualitative approach. Having a quantitative analysis step in‑between, which demonstrated the most frequent and consistent results out of a wide range of overall possibilities, helped reduce researcher bias, thereby increasing the credibility of the findings. The paper concludes that judiciously used mixed methodology in general, and this approach in particular, will give researchers using qualitative data collection a much stronger foundation in terms of the analysis and display of data.

 

Keywords: research methods, mixed methods, expert interviews, cross-impact analysis, scenario building

 

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Journal Article

Using Photo‑Elicitation to Explore Place Attachment in a Remote Setting  pp41-50

Joanna Tonge, Susan Moore, Maria Ryan, Lynnath Beckley

© Jun 2013 Volume 11 Issue 1, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 50

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Abstract

People are often attracted to unique natural environments, but what makes them continually return to these locations, especially when considerable time and effort are required to get there? This paper discusses the methods and findings of a research project aimed at identifying and exploring how visitors develop an attachment to the remote Ningaloo Marine Park in north‑western Australia. This Marine Park attracts a high percentage of repeat visitors (55%) and in order to determine the complex aspects contributing to this attachment, photo‑elicitation was employed. Photo‑elicitation is a qualitative technique where participants are asked to take photographs relating to the concept under study, and these are then used as triggers for underlying memories and feelings during a subsequent interview. For this study, participants were provided with digital cameras to take photographs of why they like visiting the Ningaloo Reef and what it was that made them return. Given this remote location and the inability to get photographs developed in reasonable timeframes, digital cameras were used instead of the disposable cameras more commonly used in this type of study. After a few days, the cameras were returned, and photographs uploaded on the researcher’s laptop computer with interviews conducted while viewing the photographs. Over a period of four weeks, during the peak visitor period, 30 participants took over 200 photographs and provided over 15 hours of interview recordings. Key aspects contributing to place attachment included the beauty of the physical environment, reef and marine based activities, social bonding with family and friends and enjoying a challenging though rewarding experience. By using a technique familiar to people on holidays, i.e. taking photographs, a method was invoked that people could engage with easily without the research impinging on their holiday experience.

 

Keywords: photo-elicitation, photographs, interviews, marine, place attachment, remote location

 

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Journal Article

Overcoming Barriers: Qualitative Interviews With German Elites  pp77-86

Hilary Drew

© Nov 2014 Volume 12 Issue 2, ECRM 2014, Editor: Ann Brown, pp75 - 167

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Abstract

Abstract: Despite the fact that qualitative interviews are reputed to be an effective method of obtaining data from organizational elites, studies are concurrent on a number of obstacles which surround the interviewing of senior management. Problem areas flagged by the literature include issues of access and suspicion towards the interviewer as an outsider. This paper presents experiences with interviewing senior‑level HR managers in German organizations. The author attempted to overcome some of the estab lished barriers to interviewing internationals and organizational elites. However, as the paper argues, unique working experience collected in Germany gave the researcher insights into how to interact with senior German managers. In particular, the resear cher drew on a previous role as a language trainer to create a method of engaging managers. The semi‑structured interviews that followed were free from barriers and resulted in the gathering of rich data which enabled the researcher to better understand p rocesses, networks and relationships.

 

Keywords: Keywords: qualitative interviews, organizational elites, cross-cultural research, business management research

 

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Journal Article

The Long, Brown Path Before me’: Story Elicitation and Analysis in Identity Studies  pp96-106

Ali Rostron

© Nov 2014 Volume 12 Issue 2, ECRM 2014, Editor: Ann Brown, pp75 - 167

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Abstract

Abstract: This paper makes a renewed case for the value of the interview as a method for investigating the workplace identities of organisational actors. In particular it addresses interpretivist criticism that interviews merely tell us how the actor would like to be seen, rather than how they behave in practice. Adopting a narrative approach, the method combines story elicitation with analysis based on Levi‑Strauss' concept of mythical thought, in which stories are analysed to not only reveal individual self‑narratives but an underpinning social landscape constructed of selected oppositions within which the individual positions themselves. The paper illustrates the method and its potential by presenting the detailed analysis of one team leader's elicited story. It demonstrates how the method allows not only insight into the team leader's self‑identity but insight into ongoing processes of identity work, by revealing the social landscapes that they construct, the discursive resources they select, reject, challenge and struggle with, and how they position themselves in relation to those resources through narrative. The revealed social landscape and narrative positioning also generates new insight into the particular organisational position of the team leader and the tensions inherent in their position between staff and the organisation.

 

Keywords: Keywords: narrative, mythic thought, interviews, identity, discourse, managers

 

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Journal Article

Uncovering Hidden Meanings, Values and Insights Through Photos  pp25-34

Maria Ryan, Madeleine Ogilvie

© Jan 2011 Volume 9 Issue 1, ECRM 2010 Special issue Part 2/Jan 2011, Editor: Ann Brown, David Douglas, Marian Carcary and Jose Esteves, pp1 - 87

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Abstract

Photographs have been used as a means of data capture for many years. Their use in recording observable phenomenon in anthropology is well documented. They also provide a valuable tool for researchers from other disciplines. This paper explores the use of photographs in qualitative business research. It demonstrates how the use of photographs can enrich the business research process through a range of techniques such as photo‑elicitation, autodriving, projective prompts and phenomenological interviews. Drawing from a selection of the researchers’ past studies, a comparative review of the use of photographs and the benefits they bring to the data capture process is examined. These studies range from an analysis of visible face makeup, place attachment in a rural community using farmers and town respondents and international students’ perceptions of home. The photographs capture the outside image of what a respondent is sensing and experiencing inwardly, providing a prompt for the respondent to drive the interview with their own words, language and values. In all instances photographs were found to augment the quality and richness of the data captured and provide an extra depth of analysis that otherwise may not have been discovered. In addition, the paper highlights the dynamics involved in the process of using visual data capture methods. The photographs were used for respondents to engage in a free sorting task which is useful in uncovering respondents’ values and meanings when asked to explain choices made between their photographs. This is of particular use in difficult to articulate situations like face makeup self perceptions and personal attachment to the environment. Our findings suggest that photographs are an increasingly important tool to use in business research and that they enhance the breadth and insight of the qualitative research process. The procedures and value gained using photographs are outlined along with a discussion on the benefits and disadvantages of this process.

 

Keywords: photoelicitation, qualitative research, autodriving, projective prompts, interviews

 

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Journal Article

Guidelines for Researchers Using an Adapted Consensual Qualitative Research Approach in Management Research  pp109-119

A van den Berg, M Struwig

© Oct 2017 Volume 15 Issue 2, Editor: Ann Brown, pp57 - 141

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Abstract

This article offers an approach to conducting qualitative research in Management Studies by providing researchers with guidelines to apply Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR). Although in the pursuit for structure, management researchers may be cautious of using qualitative research, CQR offers a structured qualitative research design option. The article explains how an adapted CQR design aligns well with most structured qualitative research methods. To describe an adapted CQR method, a research example based in Management Studies was used. This research example involved the development of a comprehensive theoretical framework that identified the various components of organisational reputation and reputation management and aimed at describing the role of social media within this framework. The primary research design of the research example consisted of two phases. The first phase comprised of an organisational policy document analysis. The second phase consisted of qualitative in‑depth, semi‑structured interviews with various departmental or divisional heads aimed at enriching the data collected using document analysis of specific policy documents. In both phases, a research team was employed as well as an auditing or verification system in keeping with the CQR method, where the research team considered the data codes, data coding, analysis and interpretation throughout the research process. This article further outlines the process followed and provides coding structures, which could be adopted for other similar studies. Ten CQR guidelines are proposed, which management researchers could apply when using document analysis in Management Studies as well as three guidelines for using interview transcripts from semi‑structured interviews. The CQR research process foundation was the research team approach adopted when analysing, coding and reporting on data collected. The adoption of a method such as CQR, or a modified version thereof, allows for a team of researchers to institute a process of validation to the research process and the results by thoroughly examining their own individual understandings of the data.

 

Keywords: CQR, qualitative methods, management research, document analysis, semi-structured interviews

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 9 Issue 1, ECRM 2010 Special issue Part 2/Jan 2011 / Jan 2011  pp1‑87

Editor: Ann Brown, David Douglas, Marian Carcary, Jose Esteves

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Editorial

These papers dealt with the problems facing management researchers in a variety of ways. The keynote paper by Eileen Trauth discusses the issues that gender research raise for business. Three papers offer advice on qualitative data analysis, of which the paper by Carcary deals with methods of collection using IT, Ryan and Ogilvie identify an unusual data source and the third (Reiter et al) deals with the problem of choosing the appropriate research method. The two papers on research methodology address entirely different types of issue. The paper by Knowles and Michielsens gives all a fascinating insight into research methods that top journals apparently prefer. Iacono et al demonstrate how effective case study methods can be in developing theory. The two final papers address the subject of teaching research methods but again offer widely different views.

 

Keywords: autodriving, building theory from case studies, CAQDAS, case study research, categorisation, coding, critical theory, diversity, epistemology, feminism, gender and IT, gender differences, grounded theory, individual differences, interpretive research, interpretivist research, interviews, iterative process, marking rubrics, memos, N-vivo, phenomenology, photoelicitation, positivist research, primary data, projective prompts, qualitative, qualitative data analysis, qualitative research, quantitative, RAE 2008, REF 2013, research audit trail, research in large classes, research mentors, research method selection, research methodology, research methods, research outcomes, research training, social inclusion, teaching quantitative research, theory, theory of gender , Web 2, women and IT workforce,

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 15 Issue 2 / Oct 2017  pp57‑141

Editor: Ann Brown

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Editorial

ec6b0d90e60fa8dcfba4e184b3080a78Dr Ann Brown is a Senior Lecturer in Information Management in the Faculty of Management at Cass Business School and Associate Dean for the Undergraduate programme. She took an MSc (Operational Research) at LSE while working at the British Steel Corporation as an Operational Researcher. She obtained her doctorate from City University in 2005, based on her work into the problems and potential of Information Systems applications to create Business Value for organisations. She supports a number of IS academic conferences through her work as a member of conference committees. She was a member of the editorial panel for Information and Management until 2008. Her research spans the exploitation of IS in organisations, the application of qualitative research methods and the impact of non traditional Teaching and Learning methods on student achievement, such as activity based learning. 

 

Keywords: qualitative, methodology, saturation, sampling, interview, coding, gerund, data analysis, constructivist grounded theory, whole networks, inter-organizational networks, evolving markets, connected health, network ethnography, anthropological research methods, insider action research, researching entrepreneurship, digital entrepreneurship, Psychogeography, focus groups, career success, gender, qualitative research, corporate culture, CQR, qualitative methods, management research, document analysis, semi-structured interviews, Delphi, Delphi method characteristics, Delphi method variants, Information systems research, Taxonomy, Taxonomy development, Phenomenology, Arts Research, Qualitative Methodology, Alchemy Methodology, arts-based research, Husserl

 

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