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Journal Article

Getting the most from NUD*ISTNVivo  pp11-22

Alison Dean, John Sharp

© Nov 2006 Volume 4 Issue 1, Editor: Arthur Money, pp1 - 66

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Abstract

Since the most problematic areas in applying NUD*IST and NVivo in management research are in using them for recording, collating, analysing and reporting interview data, this paper concentrates on the use of NUD*IST and NVivo for these purposes. It examines the problems that arise in their use at the different stages (Interviewing, Transcription, Structuring and Reporting) of three types of research project: a major research project, a specialist research project and a doctoral research project. Suggestions are made as to how these problems can be mitigated. Conclusions are drawn about good practice in the use of NUD*IST and NVivo and suggestions are made on some enhancements that might be made to them. Comments are made about Interpretivism and the use of NUD*IST and NVivo and on the role of supervisors in doctoral research involving the use of NUD*IST and NVivo.

 

Keywords: Qualitative research reporting, CAQDAS, NUD*ISTNVivo good practice, interview transcription, coding and reporting, interpreting data

 

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Journal Article

Issues and Challenges in the Use of Template Analysis: Two Comparative Case Studies from the Field.  pp85-94

Teresa Waring, David Wainwright

© Sep 2008 Volume 6 Issue 1, ECRM 2008, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 94

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Abstract

One of the most problematic issues for researchers who conduct qualitative research using semi‑structured, unstructured interviews or story telling data collection methods is the analysis of large quantities of rich data. In the past this has often led to fairly unmethodical approaches to analysis which in turn has led to qualitative business and management research being seen as insubstantial and unworthy of consideration. A relatively recent development in organisational research has been the application of Template Analysis to rich unstructured qualitative data following the primary data collection phase. Template Analysis appears to have emerged from the USA during the 1990s and academics familiar with the Grounded Theory approach to data analysis may see similarities in the techniques used. Nevertheless, it has gained credibility in the UK through the work of Nigel King and other colleagues researching in health and sociology related fields. This paper provides an overview of the origins of Template Analysis and discusses how it has been used to structure qualitative data. It then goes on to examine through the two case studies how Template Analysis has been extended and used by the authors in two different research projects. In the first case study the research team worked within a Primary Care Trust in the North East of England on a project that explored the Diffusion of Innovation of clinical and administrative computer systems across General Practice within the Trust. Seventeen Trust members were interviewed for approximately one hour and this led to over 85000 words of rich data. The second project focused on the NHS Secondary Care sector and examined IT project management practice related to the development of integrated pathology computing systems across eight separate laboratories in the North of England. Eight senior managers were interviewed and this, combined with participant observation and over 3 years of document collection, also resulted in a large volume of rich textual material. The use of template analysis, combined with a critical success factors methodology, resulted in a novel approach for learning about current IT project management practices. This paper critically examines these two case studies in terms of their particular research philosophy, epistemological approach and the lessons learnt from the techniques employed. The paper then provides a discussion of the principles and practicalities of template analysis and explores the benefits to the business and management research community at large.

 

Keywords: template analysis, qualitative, NHS, interview, information

 

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Journal Article

Challenges of Multicultural Data Collection and Analysis: Experiences From the Health Information System Research  pp75-82

Reetta Raitoharju, Eeva Heiro, Ranjan Kini, Martin D'Cruz

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, ECRM 2009, Editor: Ann Brown, Joseph Azzopardi, Frank Bezzina, pp1 - 116

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Abstract

The effect of culture has been popular topic in recent information system research. However, it is not a simple task to either collect or analyze data containing elements of "culture". This paper presents previous literature on how to measure culture, the theoretical background how to build this construct and a short description of empirical study we conducted in a multicultural environment. Our research topic was to examine the usage of health information exchange systems in two different kinds of healthcare sectors (i.e. Finland and USA). Finally we reflect on our experiences both in collecting data as well as in analyzing it through the lenses of cultural differences. Strengths and weaknesses of multicultural data collection are discussed together with opportunities and threats of analyzing data with the purpose of finding cultural elements.

 

Keywords: multicultural data collection, information systems, health care professionals, interview, focus groups

 

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Journal Article

Surveying Adolescents: The Impact of Data Collection Methodology on Response Quality  pp41-53

Beverly Wright, Alphonso O. Ogbuehi

© Jul 2014 Volume 12 Issue 1, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 74

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Abstract

Abstract: There is wide agreement in the methodology community that the choice of data collection mode may affect the quality of response. In addition, the method of choice may also influence respondent behavior and feelings which may also impact the qual ity of data. This research examines response quality and respondent satisfaction measures compared across three data collection methods among male adolescent respondents. Results suggest that adolescents provide improved levels for several dimensions of response quality when participating in interview‑based research studies compared to text‑based methods such as electronic form and paper and pencil formats.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Response quality, adolescent respondents, male respondents, interview-based methodology, text-based methodology, response distortion

 

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Journal Article

Equipping the Constructivist Researcher: The Combined use of Semi‑Structured Interviews and Decision‑Making maps  pp87-95

Reza Mojtahed, Miguel Baptista Nunes, Jorge Tiago Martins, Alex Peng

© Nov 2014 Volume 12 Issue 2, ECRM 2014, Editor: Ann Brown, pp75 - 167

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Abstract

Abstract: An interview is a technique used by qualitative researchers to elicit facts and knowledge about the phenomenon under investigation using a series of interview questions. Nonetheless, the establishment of conversation and negotiation of meaning during the interview process is still challenging for those who conduct interviews, no matter how skilled or experienced researchers are with the process. It is felt in particular that researchers would benefit from the use of an instrument that, in the course of semi‑structured interviews, would foster an environment where the ideas and meanings conveyed by informants could be developed and further discussed in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. Therefore, th is paper attempts to develop and introduce decision‑making maps as a new instrument to be used during the process of conducting semi‑structured interviews. This newly proposed instrument is inspired by the concept and practice of perceptual mapping. The p aper discusses the rationale for proposing the development and application of decision‑making map in the context of semi‑structured interviews, and reflects on the range of implications for the researcher, for participants, and for the practice of qualita tive research that claims affiliation with constructivism.

 

Keywords: Keywords: inductive research, constructivism, qualitative interview, perceptual mapping, decision-making map

 

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Journal Article

Uncovering Hidden Meanings, Values and Insights Through Photos  pp25-34

Maria Ryan, Madeleine Ogilvie

© Jan 2011 Volume 9 Issue 1, ECRM 2010 Special issue Part 2/Jan 2011, Editor: Ann Brown, David Douglas, Marian Carcary and Jose Esteves, pp1 - 87

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Abstract

Photographs have been used as a means of data capture for many years. Their use in recording observable phenomenon in anthropology is well documented. They also provide a valuable tool for researchers from other disciplines. This paper explores the use of photographs in qualitative business research. It demonstrates how the use of photographs can enrich the business research process through a range of techniques such as photo‑elicitation, autodriving, projective prompts and phenomenological interviews. Drawing from a selection of the researchers’ past studies, a comparative review of the use of photographs and the benefits they bring to the data capture process is examined. These studies range from an analysis of visible face makeup, place attachment in a rural community using farmers and town respondents and international students’ perceptions of home. The photographs capture the outside image of what a respondent is sensing and experiencing inwardly, providing a prompt for the respondent to drive the interview with their own words, language and values. In all instances photographs were found to augment the quality and richness of the data captured and provide an extra depth of analysis that otherwise may not have been discovered. In addition, the paper highlights the dynamics involved in the process of using visual data capture methods. The photographs were used for respondents to engage in a free sorting task which is useful in uncovering respondents’ values and meanings when asked to explain choices made between their photographs. This is of particular use in difficult to articulate situations like face makeup self perceptions and personal attachment to the environment. Our findings suggest that photographs are an increasingly important tool to use in business research and that they enhance the breadth and insight of the qualitative research process. The procedures and value gained using photographs are outlined along with a discussion on the benefits and disadvantages of this process.

 

Keywords: photoelicitation, qualitative research, autodriving, projective prompts, interviews

 

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Journal Article

Mixed Methods: Combining Expert Interviews, Cross‑Impact Analysis and Scenario Development  pp9-21

Matthias Muskat, Deborah Blackman, Birgit Muskat.

© Jan 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 52

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Abstract

The article depicts a mixed methodology case which uses a qualitative‑quantitative‑qualitative approach. The research described used qualitative work with expert interviews for data collection, a quantitative analysis of the interviews and then a qualitative method of final scenario development for analysing and presenting the results. The case is offered to demonstrate that the introduction of the quantitative step of a cross‑impact‑analysis, which gives a mixed methodology, was beneficial for the overall research leading to surprising results that could not have been achieved with only a qualitative approach. Having a quantitative analysis step in‑between, which demonstrated the most frequent and consistent results out of a wide range of overall possibilities, helped reduce researcher bias, thereby increasing the credibility of the findings. The paper concludes that judiciously used mixed methodology in general, and this approach in particular, will give researchers using qualitative data collection a much stronger foundation in terms of the analysis and display of data.

 

Keywords: research methods, mixed methods, expert interviews, cross-impact analysis, scenario building

 

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Journal Article

Generating a new Interview Method by using Sensing Technology to Assess Human Emotions  pp110-120

Yayoi Hirose, Kiyoshi Itao, Tomohiro Umeda

© Dec 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2, ECRM, Editor: Ann Brown, pp53 - 153

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Abstract

This study aims at generating new interview methods for obtaining more detailed information regarding human emotional factors by utilizing sensing technology. It can improve the weaknesses of qualitative research past discussions have pointed out, and develop the validity of collected data and more objective analysis of collected data in qualitative research. As the first step for a new research method, the study uses two types of sensing device which assess the emotional condition of an interviewee. The first device is ST technology, voice analysis software and a system of emotion estimation. This device using voice analysis defines what emotional condition the interviewees have. When the interviewee makes a statement, the ST technology can investigate his‑her emotional condition, such as whether the interviewee stated it disappointedly, delightly, or angrily, while the conventional coding simply relies on text data. The second device is WHS‑1, portable sensing device. This device investigates whether the interviewee stated certain things in a relaxed or stressed condition by measuring heart rate and analysing the condition of autonomic nerves. The study finally adopts both devices to precisely assess the interviewee’s emotional condition, and demonstrates that the two devices enable the researcher to obtain closer view of the interviewees. The study suggests that generally the two types of sensing device can play a supportive role in analysing emotional factors for interview research. While the researcher can only ascertain stressful or delightful factors based on coding analysis, using sensing devices enables the researcher to identify how stressful or joyful the interviewee is, and why they are in this state, ie. are they stressed due to anger or sorrow? It is expected to enable the researcher to more deeply consider the reason the interviewee is in a certain emotional condition, and also lead to contextual or theoretical discussion.

 

Keywords: interview method, qualitative research, sensing technology, emotional factor

 

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