The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods provides perspectives on topics relevant to research in the field of business and management
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Journal Article

Subtextual Phenomenology: A Methodology for Valid, First‑Person Research  pp106-118

Jocene Vallack

© Dec 2010 Volume 8 Issue 2, ECRM Special Issue Part 1, Editor: Ann Brown, David Douglas, Marian Carcary and Jose Esteves, pp63 - 162

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Abstract

This paper presents a methodology for first‑person, intuitive research. It argues that it is possible to do rigorous research using subjective, first‑person data. The methodology, which I call Subtextual Phenomenology (sometimes shortened to Subphenomenology), provides a theoretical framework for such practice.

 

Keywords: subtextual phenomenology, phenomenology, arts-based research, first-person research, transcendental phenomenology, intuitive research

 

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Journal Article

From Art for Arts Sake to Art as Means of Knowing: A Rationale for Advancing Arts‑Based Methods in Research, Practice and Pedagogy  pp154-167

Sally Eaves

© Nov 2014 Volume 12 Issue 2, ECRM 2014, Editor: Ann Brown, pp75 - 167

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Abstract

Abstract: This paper advances a philosophically informed rationale for the broader, reflexive and practical application of arts‑based methods to benefit research, practice and pedagogy. It addresses the complexity and diversity of learning and knowing, fo regrounding a cohabitative position and recognition of a plurality of research approaches, tailored and responsive to context. Appreciation of art and aesthetic experience is situated in the everyday, underpinned by multi‑layered exemplars of pragmatic vi sual‑arts narrative inquiry undertaken in the third, creative and communications sectors. Discussion considers semi‑guided use of arts‑based methods as a conduit for topic engagement, reflection and intersubjective agreement; alongside observation and int erpretation of organically employed approaches used by participants within daily norms. Techniques span handcrafted (drawing), digital (photography), hybrid (cartooning), performance dimensions (improvised installations) and music (metaphor and s tructure). The process of creation, the artefact/outcome produced and experiences of consummation are all significant, with specific reflexivity impacts. Exploring methodology and epistemology, both the ⠜doing⠀ and its interpretation are explicated t o inform method selection, replication, utility, evaluation and development of cross‑media skills literacy. Approaches are found engaging, accessible and empowering, with nuanced capabilities to alter relationships with phenomena, experiences and people. By building a discursive space that reduces barriers; emancipation, interaction, polyphony, letting‑go and the progressive unfolding of thoughts are supported, benefiting ways of knowing, narrative (re)construction, sensory perception and capacities to act. This can also present underexplored researcher risks in respect to emotion work, self‑disclosure, identity and agenda. The paper therefore elucidates complex, intricate relationships between form and content, the represented and the representation or performance, researcher and participant, and the self a

 

Keywords: Keywords: arts-based research, arts, aesthetics, visual narrative inquiry, reflexivity, authenticity, polyphony, knowledge

 

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Journal Article

Alchemy Methodology ‑ Applying the Arts to Research  pp134-141

Jocene Vallack

© Oct 2017 Volume 15 Issue 2, Editor: Ann Brown, pp57 - 141

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Abstract

The difference between art and research is that, whereas art can speak for itself, research must be explained. Unlike research, art invites open interpretation from the viewers, without any need to justify or explicate its existence or the artist’s intentions. Research however, by its very nature, is a cognitive and rational product – at least in its final stages. The appreciation of postmodern perspectives in academia has given rise to methodologies for first‑person inquiries and arts‑based methods. Arts methods may provide the researcher with great insights into a research question, however the inquiry needs to be situated in a rational and philosophically aligned research framework. In this paper I present Alchemy Methodology as a theoretical framework for such research. It has been developed as an application of the pure phenomenology of Edmund Husserl, and it uses arts practice and subjective insights to inform and transform this data into universal, phenomenological insights. Alchemy Methodology is based on three principles: • that the unconscious mind is far superior to logic and cognition when it comes to navigating the complex research question, but ... • that the unconscious can only speak through images and metaphor, which ultimately must be translated through rational thought and language • that the arts‑based methods embedded in Alchemy Inquiry, can take the researcher from the most subjective reflections to the most intersubjective, universal outcomes This paper shows how the researcher can use arts practice to inspire unconscious responses to a research question, and frame these methods in a research construction, which is rigorous and informed by pure, European Phenomenology. It takes issue with a common misconception of phenomenology in research, arguing that twentieth century modernism has skewed Husserl’s transcendental philosophy into something obscure and nonsensical.

 

Keywords: Phenomenology, Arts Research, Qualitative Methodology, Alchemy Methodology, arts-based research, Husserl

 

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Journal Article

Theatre as Research  pp86-92

Jocene Vallack

© Jul 2018 Volume 16 Issue 2, Intuitive Researcher, Editor: Jocene Vallack, pp55 - 102

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Abstract

This paper presents a methodology called Theatre as Research. It argues that using theatre to analyse and present research findings draws on both the creative and intuitive unconscious as well as the logical, cognitive and rational dimensions of the mind. The methodology is presented in a big picture context, showing its philosophical alignment, from the overarching epistemology of Constructionism, which informs the whole approach, right down to the methods used to implement the research process. Within this context, the paper also discusses various theories that support the notion of intuition as a way of knowing. Gebser’s (1986) theory of the evolution of consciousness, along with contemporary theories of psychoanalysis and left and right brain functioning, collectively support the contention that Theatre as Research is able to draw on the powerful and creative unconscious to inform the final, cognitive analysis of the data. It is a process through which the unconscious synthesis of data to produce impressions and metaphors can then be clarified and articulated through the mindful scripting and presentation of the play.

 

Keywords: Arts-Based Research Methods, Theatre as Research Methodology, Qualitative research, Performance Text, Ethnodrama

 

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Journal Article

Mixed‑Methods Triage: Coalescing Holistic Perspectives for a More Diverse and Inclusive Academy  pp80-85

B. H. Martin

© Jul 2018 Volume 16 Issue 2, Intuitive Researcher, Editor: Jocene Vallack, pp55 - 102

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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identify an unspoken bias embedded within the academy, and to present a new paradigm for social science research that disrupts traditional graduate school indoctrination and knowledge mobilization practices in favor of a more inclusive academy. First, I tease apart the dogmatic camp‑building perpetuated by those who have learned to socialize a value for their own philosophical paradigms by discrediting others. I then suggest that research from different philosophical paradigms, but on the same phenomenon, can be presented together; and, that sense‑making of such findings need not reside in the academy, but instead, in the community of readers seeking to understand a complex phenomenon. Through my own story, I share a case of systemic dysfunction within traditional academic publication that acted as a barrier to my own knowledge mobilization. This inspired an alternative approach to dissemination that I call mixed methods triage: knowledge mobilization that juxtaposes different studies on a common phenomenon, regardless of philosophical alignment, and presents them to the reader as they are without converging or making sense of the findings as a whole. I identify three tenets for this approach, and propose triage as a potential platform for a more diverse and inclusive academy. Ultimately, mixed‑methods triage aligns with and expands pragmatic, mixed‑methods research and contributes to the emerging trend of interdisciplinary scholarship.

 

Keywords: arts-based research, mixed-methods, philosophy, triangulation, triage

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 8 Issue 2, ECRM Special Issue Part 1 / Dec 2010  pp63‑162

Editor: Ann Brown, David Douglas, Marian Carcary, Jose Esteves

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Editorial

Introduction to the ECRM conference issues

The subject of research methods in business is showing an extraordinary level of activity and innovation and this conference (the 9th European Conference on Research Methods in Business and Management) reflected this. Papers ranged from those offering insight and help in applying such favorite methods as Grounded Theory (Douglas and Nunes et al) to those introducing new ideas such as the application of subtextual phenomenology (Valleck). Papers fell naturally into fourteen main themes and these formed the basis of the conference streams. The quality of the papers was of such a high level that it was decided to publish two conference issues, A & B.  Issue A has the best papers on: Grounded Theory, Mixed Methods, Reflecting and Researching one’s own professional practice, Research Methods in Business and Research Methods in Strategy‑as‑practice. Issue B has the best papers on: Qualitative Data Analysis, Research Methodology and methodology issues, Teaching Research Methods and Methodologies and Trust and Ethics

The final selection of papers was agreed by the senior editor of the Journal and the guest editors. The comments of session chairs were taken into account in making the final selection of papers for these two issues of the EJBRM. The papers selected were chosen for their quality of writing, their relevance to the Journal’s objective of publishing papers that offer new insights or practical help in the application of research methods in business research.

Issue A

These papers dealt with the problems facing management researchers in a variety of ways. Two papers develop new ideas (Valleck, Venkateswaran and Prabhu). Vallek’s paper introduces a relatively new method for researching in that it advocates the use of personal experience through the application of subtextual phenomenology (Valleck). The paper by Venkateswaran and Prabhu claim that their topic ‑ strategy‑as‑Practice is just emerging as a new subject. This is the study of individual and organizational actions in the process of strategizing. The paper gives an insightful view of the problems of taking a holistic view of such actions. The two papers on Grounded Theory could not have been more different in their aims, one (Douglas) shows us how the method can be used to identify the differing perspectives of stakeholders, while the second (Nunes et al) offers a valuable insight into managing the key initial stage of the method through the use of pilot studies. The papers on mixed methods (Papadimitriou, Molina‑Azorin and Cameron) both offer insight into how and when to use this method. Papadimitriou is a helpful paper to others in understanding the MMs approach to research. Whereas Molina‑Azorin and Cameron carry out a survey of the way Mixed methods has been applied in a number of key organizational research journals. The remaining three papers offer valuable insights into key steps of the research process: O'hEocha et al give a review of the use of focus groups from the literature which offers us insight into the value and appropriateness of using this technique. Heine uses an example of analyzing the behavior of a niche group to discuss the twin problems of surveys – that of reaching the target group and then motivating them to respond.  Beck et al address the practical problems of making use of data (on major change projects) over which the researcher has little control as to choice or the conditions within which the collection takes place.

 

Keywords: grounded theory, small business, entrepreneurship, pilot studies, context, research design, multilevel mixed design, quality management, higher education, neo-institutional theory, mixed methods research, strategic management, organizational behaviour, quantitative methods, qualitative methods, subtextual phenomenology; phenomenology; arts-based research; first-person research, transcendental phenomenology, intuitive research, focus group, information systems development, evaluation criteria, luxury products, luxury brands, luxury consumers, survey participant acquisition, survey response, viral marketing, field research, external validity, induction, statistical generalization, theoretical generalization, strategy-as-practice, research methods, strategy research, clinical research, review

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 15 Issue 2 / Oct 2017  pp57‑141

Editor: Ann Brown

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Editorial

ec6b0d90e60fa8dcfba4e184b3080a78Dr Ann Brown is a Senior Lecturer in Information Management in the Faculty of Management at Cass Business School and Associate Dean for the Undergraduate programme. She took an MSc (Operational Research) at LSE while working at the British Steel Corporation as an Operational Researcher. She obtained her doctorate from City University in 2005, based on her work into the problems and potential of Information Systems applications to create Business Value for organisations. She supports a number of IS academic conferences through her work as a member of conference committees. She was a member of the editorial panel for Information and Management until 2008. Her research spans the exploitation of IS in organisations, the application of qualitative research methods and the impact of non traditional Teaching and Learning methods on student achievement, such as activity based learning. 

 

Keywords: qualitative, methodology, saturation, sampling, interview, coding, gerund, data analysis, constructivist grounded theory, whole networks, inter-organizational networks, evolving markets, connected health, network ethnography, anthropological research methods, insider action research, researching entrepreneurship, digital entrepreneurship, Psychogeography, focus groups, career success, gender, qualitative research, corporate culture, CQR, qualitative methods, management research, document analysis, semi-structured interviews, Delphi, Delphi method characteristics, Delphi method variants, Information systems research, Taxonomy, Taxonomy development, Phenomenology, Arts Research, Qualitative Methodology, Alchemy Methodology, arts-based research, Husserl

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 16 Issue 2, Intuitive Researcher / Jul 2018  pp55‑102

Editor: Jocene Vallack

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Editorial

Guest Editor

Dr Jocene Vallack, formerly an actor, writer, director and Drama teacher, she has lectured in Research Methods at universities in Australia, and also as a volunteer in Tanzania. She has held a research fellowship at Central Queensland University, and has worked in Academic Development. She now enjoys teaching Arts Education at James Cook University.

 

Keywords: Reflexivity, autoethnography, intuition, academic environment, researcher identity, research supervisor, PhD student, Human centred design, service design, design research methods, design thinking, arts-informed research, wicked problems, commercial design, arts-based research, mixed-methods, philosophy, triangulation, triage, Arts-Based Research Methods, Theatre as Research Methodology, Qualitative research, Performance Text, Ethnodrama, Poetic transcription, visual displays, visual culture, hermeneutics, narrative inquiry, art education

 

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