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Journal Article

Individualised Rating‑Scale Procedure: A Means of Reducing Response Style Contamination in Survey Data?  pp9-20

Elisa Chami-Castaldi, Nina Reynolds, James Wallace

© Sep 2008 Volume 6 Issue 1, ECRM 2008, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 94

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Abstract

Response style bias has been shown to seriously contaminate the substantive results drawn from survey data; particularly those conducted using cross‑cultural samples. As a consequence, identification of response formats that suffer least from response style bias has been called for. Previous studies show that respondents' personal characteristics, such as age, education level and culture, are connected with response style manifestation. Differences in the way respondents interpret and utilise researcher‑defined fixed rating‑scales (e.g. Likert formats), poses a problem for survey researchers. Techniques that are currently used to remove response bias from survey data are inadequate as they cannot accurately determine the level of contamination present and frequently blur true score variance. Inappropriate rating‑scales can impact on the level of response style bias manifested, insofar as they may not represent respondents' cognitions. Rating‑scale lengths that are too long present respondents with some response categories that are not 'meaningful', whereas rating‑scales that are too short force respondents into compressing their cognitive rating‑scales into the number of response categories provided (this can cause ERS contamination — extreme responding). We are therefore not able to guard against two respondents, who share the same cognitive position on a continuum, reporting their stance using different numbers on the rating‑scale provided. This is especially problematic where a standard fixed rating‑scale is used in cross‑cultural surveys. This paper details the development of the Individualised Rating‑Scale Procedure (IRSP), a means of extracting a respondent's 'ideal' rating‑scale length, and as such 'designing out' response bias, for use as the measurement instrument in a survey. Whilst the fundamental ideas for self‑anchoring rating‑scales have been posited in the literature, the IRSP was developed using a series of qualitative interviews with participants. Finally, we discuss how the IRSP's reliability and validity can be quantitatively assessed and compared to typical fixed researcher‑defined rating‑scales, such as the Likert format.

 

Keywords: scale length, response styles, response bias, survey research, cross-cultural surveys, individualised ratingscale procedure

 

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Journal Article

Comparison of Web and Telephone Survey Response Rates in Saudi Arabia  pp123-132

Ali A. Al-Subaihi

© Nov 2008 Volume 6 Issue 2, Editor: Ann Brown, pp123 - 216

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Abstract

A study was conducted to compare the response rate of telephone interview and Web Survey in Saudi Arabia utilizing Internet usage statistics, as well as experimental design. Official data shows that the reason that led the majority of Saudi people to choose not to interact with Web Survey similarly to the telephone interview is not technical due to the lack of Internet coverage, but rather cultural. Furthermore, the experimental part demonstrates three main findings. First, the response rate to the Web Survey is significantly lower than to the telephone interview. Second, Saudi males participated significantly more than females especially with the Web Survey though both had the same level of Internet access. Third, the average response rate of telephone interview is significantly above 95% for both genders, whereas the average response rate of the Web Survey is about 30%.

 

Keywords: Web survey, telephone survey, response rate, Saudi Arabia

 

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Journal Article

Fact‑Based Understanding of Business Survey Non‑Response  pp83-92

Karsten Boye Rasmussen, Heiko Thimm

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, ECRM 2009, Editor: Ann Brown, Joseph Azzopardi, Frank Bezzina, pp1 - 116

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Abstract

A 2007‑2008 two‑nation business survey was carried out by two universities and supporting business development agencies. The intention of describing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and their use of information technology and cooperation was disrupted by a very low response rate. Some practices concerning nonresponse (Rogelberg & Stanton, 2007) are discussed and implemented. The collected data are compared to data known in advance from registers for the nonresponding companies. Also, a second data set with concise answer information from nonrespondents was obtained by phone for categorization of the nonrespondents. Finally the nonresponse is related to data about contact between the companies and business development agencies to illuminate interest as the dependent variable. The article is an investigation into nonresponse at the organizational level and demonstrates throughout the article how facts obtained by other methods (multi mode) besides the central survey can improve the understanding of nonresponse.

 

Keywords: business survey, fact-based, nonresponse, self-selection, regional development, SMEs

 

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Journal Article

Identification and Motivation of Participants for Luxury Consumer Surveys  pp132-145

Klaus Heine

© Dec 2010 Volume 8 Issue 2, ECRM Special Issue Part 1, Editor: Ann Brown, David Douglas, Marian Carcary and Jose Esteves, pp63 - 162

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Abstract

Luxury consumer behaviour is still a relatively new area of research, one that relies largely on paid surveys and especially on student samples. However, it is questionable whether moderately paid surveys really can attract wealthy heirs or busy managers or if students can imagine themselves in the role of experienced luxury consumers. In addition, many researchers hesitate to target luxury consumers. One reason is the ongoing discussion in the literature as to what constitutes a luxury consumer and as to how luxury consumers can be distinguished from non‑luxury consumers and ultimately, how to identify them for empirical studies. What is more, this particular target group is notoriously hard to access and difficult to persuade to participate in any survey. Despite these problems, no article could be found in the literature, which addressed either the identification or the motivation of respondents for luxury consumer surveys (LCS). Therefore, the objective of this paper is to categorize and to discuss the means of identification and motivation of participants for LCS. Based on a literature analysis of existing LCS, the paper presents a categorization of the major research objectives, target groups, and identification methods for LCS. Subsequently, it provides an overview of common methods of participant motivation and discusses their suitability for LCS, which suggests thinking about some non‑monetary incentives that could convince luxury consumers to participate in a survey in their own interest. As this idea coincides with the notion of viral marketing, it seems promising to adapt this concept for viral participant acquisition (VPA). Consequently, the paper presents a case study detailing the implement‑ation of VPA on a recent LCS and concludes with the lessons learned.

 

Keywords: luxury products, luxury brands, luxury consumers, survey participant acquisition, survey response, viral marketing

 

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Journal Article

A Technical Guide to Effective and Accessible Web Surveys  pp101-109

Greg Baatard

© Dec 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2, ECRM, Editor: Ann Brown, pp53 - 153

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Abstract

The Internet is becoming an increasingly prominent medium for the administration of surveys. Although individual findings vary, the majority of the literature agrees that the appropriateness and response rates of web surveys is expected to rise in the fut

 

Keywords: web, online, survey, questionnaire, guide, accessibility

 

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Journal Article

A Reflection on Intercept Survey Use in Thailand: Some Cultural Considerations for Transnational Studies  pp60-70

Chanchai Phonthanukitithaworn, Carmine Sellitto

© Sep 2016 Volume 14 Issue 1, Editor: Ann Brown, pp1 - 70

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Abstract

Abstract: How people respond to research surveys has been of long standing interest to investigators. In this paper, we reflect on our experiences in using the intercept survey as part of a study that examined m‑payment in Thailand. The paper does not report the findings of the original m‑payment study, but highlights how the cultural features of the target population were an important consideration at the survey translation, pilot testing and data collection stages. We propose that cultural features such as face‑to‑face interaction, the intrinsic notion of politeness (Kreng Jai) and conveying respect to potential participants (giving the Wai) as significant elements in achieving a relatively high participation rate. Survey translation occurred via mo derated discussions where the cultural dimensions of collectivism and personal status (relevant in high PDI societies) were observed to influence group dynamics. In the field, the intercept survey promoted direct engagement with people (preferred amongst collectivism cultures), with respondents observed to be highly considerate of investigator needs and thus more likely to participate in the study.The papers contribution is one of highlighting the importance of considering national culture in the initial survey translation stage and later when collecting data in the field. Although a reflective piece, we believe that the findings have the potential to inform and assist researchers to improve the quality of their survey instruments and data responses in similar cultural settings.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Culture, intercept survey, Hofstede, Thailand, data collection, methodology, Kreng Jai, The Wai

 

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Journal Article

Getting results from online surveys — Reflections on a personal journey  pp45-52

Rachel A. McCalla

© Jul 2003 Volume 2 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 77

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Abstract

In this paper we present a personal reflection on the implementation of an online survey, highlighting the tradeoffs between the potential benefits and pitfalls. It is argued that casting your net out too wide, in a bid to maximise responses can result ultimately in a low response rate. We evaluate the experience of completing an online survey from the perspective of both the researcher and the respondent to outline the dynamics of the completion and submission process. Finally, in a bid to assist those interested, a review of some of the online survey tools is presented.

 

Keywords: Questionnaires, Surveys, Research Design, Research Process, Design and Implementation, Stakeholder Perspectives

 

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Journal Article

Mixed‑mode Surveys Using Mail and Web Questionnaires  pp69-80

Matthias Meckel, David Walters, Philip Baugh

© Sep 2005 Volume 3 Issue 1, Editor: Arthur Money, pp1 - 92

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Abstract

With the Internet now being a part of everyday life mixed‑mode surveys that use the world wide web can be seen as an opportunity to increase the response rate of surveys. This paper looks at the advantages and disadvantages of different response modes suitable for mixed‑mode surveys. Based on this consideration the paper addresses the influence of a mixed‑mode approach using conventional mail and web based questionnaires on coverage, sampling, measurement, and non‑ response error as well as pitfalls and opportunities specific to this type of survey. It discusses mixed‑ mode and web specific issues such as technological aspects, security, convenience and similarity. The paper proposes that this approach has no apparent potential error consequences if certain requirements are fulfilled. The use of mixed mode questionnaires is exemplified by a survey conducted with 1000 SMEs in the North West of England in 2002. After analysing the findings the paper concludes by looking at the relation between the mode of response and the answers provided by the respondents and by summarising the insights gained from the study.

 

Keywords: Questionnaires, Surveys, Mixed Mode, World Wide Web, Quantitative, Research

 

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